Current projects include logical spreadsheets, data, and service integration on the World Wide Web, and computational law. Once, again there are two puzzles for you to work on this week. If you have any problems, let us know immediately. A cautionary note. The first part of the course is now done. By the time you are done this week, you should be comfortable doing Hilbert proofs; and you should be ready to opine about its strengths and weaknesses. CS 157 is a rigorous introduction to Logic from a computational perspective. Previewing page 1 Logic is used to define the steps and tasks. Finally, you might want to check out the puzzles. Hopefully, those of you who helped others learned something in the process; and, in any case, you did a good thing. The Stanford Logic Group is a multidisciplinary research group operating within the Stanford Computer Science Department. You can access the Exams page by clicking on the Exams link in the command bar above. Starting this week, we explore an alternative to Relational Logic, called Functional Logic, in which we can name infinitely many objects with a finite vocabulary. In case you need one, there is a link to a timer in the text on the exam page. Unfortunately, this is not possible due to the finiteness restriction of Relational Logic. This interdisciplinary undergraduate degree program in MCS is sponsored by Stanford's departments of Statistics, Mathematics, Computer Science, and Management Science & Engineering, providing students with a core of mathematics basic to all the mathematical sciences and an introduction to concepts and techniques of computation, optimal decision making, probabilistic modeling, and statistical inference. in SearchWorks catalog The exam will take place on Tuesday, and there will be a review session on Thursday. Finally, I want to thank those of you who participated in the Piazza newsgroup. As we have seen, there is a sound and complete proof procedure for Relational Logic (i.e. These are easy to use and have the virtue that they can do proof discovery. Logic and Artificial Intelligence. In that paper, the author defines ... Computational logic12 is the use of logic to perform or reason about computation. Fitch). Some of the puzzles (like this one) are extremely easy; others are more difficult. Logic is a set of principles that forms a Margaret Jacks Hall Building 460 Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-2150. If you already have a passcode, sign in using your Stanford email address and this passcode. Join to view Computational Logic and access 3M+ class-specific study document. in Physics from M.I.T. If X manages Y and X is an ofﬁcemate of Y, then that is illegal. exams based off other students' experiences. It depends on the proof system. There are two components to this approach: (1) the representation of facts and regulations as sentences in formal logic and (2) the use of mechanical reasoning techniques to derive consequences of the facts and laws so represented. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. and his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University. The Hilbert proof system is conceptually quite simple. 1.1 The Role of Logic in Artificial Intelligence. He is best known for his work on computational logic and its applications in enterprise computing, computational law, and general game playing. Lesson 2 introduces the syntax and semantics of Propositional Logic as well as the essentials concepts of evaluation and satisfaction. Apologies in advance if this happens to you. It shows how to encode information in the form of logical sentences; it shows how to reason with information in this form; and it provides an overview of logic technology and its applications - in mathematics, science, engineering, business, law, and so forth. From a practical perspective, Computational Law is important as the basis for computer systems capable of performing useful legal calculations, such as compliance checking, legal planning, and regulatory analysis. Those of you who made it to the end should feel pretty good - you have seen a lot of material, covered more rapidly and at a deeper level than in most introductory courses in Logic. Computational logic12 is the use of logic to perform or reason about computation. actual document. The exam will cover the material in Lessons 11, 12, and 13. Importantly, there is a commitment to a level of rigor in specifying laws that is sufficient to support entirely mechanical processing. We have finally begun our discussion of Relational Logic. That said, we will likely give extra credit to those who, in addition to regular coursework, have solved at least some of the weekly puzzles and those who have asked and/or answered questions on Piazza. The format will be the same as that of the first midterm. Note that, due to the pandemic and our shortened quarter, we will be skipping the material on relational resolution (Lesson / Chapter 10). See the table below for a schedule of lessons, quizzes, and reviews. You should get comfortable with the language and you should get comfortable evaluating sentences and finding truth assignments that satisfy those sentences. Michael Genesereth is a professor in the Computer Science Department at Stanford University and a professor by courtesy in the Stanford Law School. Prerequisite: basic concepts of programming. There is also a direct proof system, but it is less practical and so we do not spend any time on it. However, we can now use some additional rules to deal with functional terms. The main restriction is that the worlds must be finite (since we have only finitely many constants to refer to these objects). Often, we want to describe worlds with infinitely many objects. The format will be the same as that of the previous exams. What is easy in one system is often difficult in another and vice versa. Rigorous introduction to Symbolic Logic from a computational perspective. However, this is not required; and, as previously described, you may take the exam any time during the 24 hour period beginning noonish on Tuesday. That said, you are expected to submit your own work in this course; and you are responsible for understanding and being able to explain any solutions you submit. On the basic wiring and computational logic of the brain Joe Tsien Professor of Neurology Augusta University Augusta, GA, US. Over the years, we have improved these materials with the help of students like you. There is more difficult material to come. Computational Biology Evolution Genetics Population Biology Human genetic and cultural evolution, mathematical biology, demography of China population genetics Hunter Fraser You should try to get through the sections and exercises of Lessons 7 and 8 this week. Start early; don't wait till the end of the week. This week's exercises are easy. This week, we look at two proof systems for Relational Logic - a natural deduction system and a refutation system. Attend the discussion sessions or use Piazza to talk about things you find confusing. 1 The Basic Computational Approach to Higher-Order Modal Logic The application of computational methods to philosophical problems was initially limited to rst-order theorem provers. Think logically and save as many of your fellow prisoners as possible. Once again, we advise you to join the Zoom meeting on Tuesday to see if there are any last minute announcements. Resolution simplifies the creation of proofs by mapping all sentences form Propositional Logic into "clausal form" and then using just a single rule of inference to these expressions. Relational Logic allows us to axiomatize worlds with varying numbers of objects. Description. Another is a growing sense of confidence that everything that is logically entailed by one's premises *can* be proved (albeit with some difficulty). For some, the material may be a bit more difficult. New puzzles this week - Nations (solve problems in World politics) and Nim (impress your friends by always beating them). 0 The mission of the undergraduate program in Linguistics is to provide students with basic knowledge in the principal areas of linguistics (phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and computational linguistics) and the skills to do more advanced work in these subfields. It emphasizes explicit behavioural constraints and eschews implicit rules of conduct. An extended model of natural logic Bill MacCartney and Christopher D. Manning The Eighth International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS … There is only so much one can teach in the form of notes and hypercards and exercises and extras and puzzles. logical analysis of meaning in natural languages and computational processing thereof Chris Potts: Associate Professor, Linguistics semantics, pragmatics, and computational methods for linguistic research Vaughan Pratt: Professor (Emeritus), Computer Science foundations of concurrency, linear logic, Chu spaces, logics of geometry There is some optional material in the lessons (e.g. Many of you will find that creating proofs is more challenging than the exercises in preceding lessons. This course introduces basic logic programming theory, current technology, and examples of common applications, notably deductive databases, logical spreadsheets, enterprise management, computational law, and game playing. Moreover, even if we add in induction, the procedure is still not complete. Reasoning with facts and logical sentences encoded in this way is quite simple. part ii. A Computational Logic (ACM monographs series) Includes bibliographic references and index. We suggest you look at the Exams page as soon as possible. It appears to work correctly, but you should use at your own risk. Just remember, when you are doing a proof, first formulate a plan for the proof. Based on our discussion of Propositional Logic proofs, I think I can say with confidence that at least some of you have found that generating proofs is not easy. CS 157 (Stanford) Popular Course Packets . There are links to textbook chapters, lecture slides, interactive exercises, activities, puzzles, and sundry other items. They are not directly tied to the course material, but there is a strong relationship and solving them does require the techniques discussed in the course. Logicians is pretty easy. No puzzles this week. Tsien is a Professor of Neurology, Co-Director of the Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, and an Eminent Scholar of the Georgia Research Alliance in Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience. Often, this means starting at the end and thinking about how to derive the desired conclusion and then figuring out how to prove the intermediate results you need to prove the final result. Feel free to discuss the subject matter and the problems either directly or using Piazza. Link an email address with your Facebook below or create a new account. Your grade for the course will be based on your scores on three midterm quizzes - one on Propositional Logic, one on Relational Logic, and one on Herbrand Logic. This lesson deals with the logical properties of sentences, e.g. courses. End of the quarter means there is a good chance you would like to know how well you did. The language of Functional Logic is almost the same as for Relational Logic. Logic is used to define the steps and tasks. Traditional epistemology—the epistemology of Plato, Hume,Descartes, an… The first lesson is just an overview, and it is a very easy read. The lesson talks about the main ideas of Logic and how they relate to each other, and it provides a framework for organizing the rest of the material in the course. Encoding information in the form of logical sentences. Bio. We then discuss evaluation and satisfaction. From Lesson 1, you should be familiar with the main topics of the course - logical languages, logical entailment and logical reasoning, formalization, and automation. Basic research interests include knowledge representation, automated reasoning, and rational action. We start with syntax and semantics. And, in case you would like to learn more about logic, we will suggest some follow-on courses you might want to consider. We couldn't create a GradeBuddy account using Facebook because there is no email address associated with your Facebook account. Mechanical devices can Red hats and black hats. Topics: current state of computational law, prospects and problems, philosophical and legal implications. We will take a peek at extensions to what we have seen. The exam will take place on Tuesday, and there will be a review session on Thursday. Who is wearing which? The best part of GradeBuddy is having the ability to understand coursework and study for Concentrate on the exam. Computational logic: structure sharing and proof of program properties. Moreover, we had planned a number of in-class activities that we do not believe will work adequately in an online setting. of We have reached the end of our treatment of Propositional Logic, and the first midterm is out of the way. Title. Michael Genesereth is a professor in the Computer Science Department at Stanford University. One thing you should take away from these proof exercises is that finding proofs is a process of search in a space of possibilities. Note that, in order to access this page, you will be need to sign in. Relational Logic is more complex than Propositional Logic, but it is also more useful. He is best known for his work on computational logic and its applications in enterprise computing, computational law, and general game playing. Engreitz Lab overview: The human genome encodes Last exam. Exactly so. Obviously, there is a lot more to be done. III. Luckily, our three editors (Hilbert, Fitch, and Robinson) work for Relational Logic as well as Propositional Logic. In dealing with Functional Logic, we proceed through the same stages as in Propositional Logic and Relational Logic. (CS), Cs 157 However, the exercises become more difficult as the course progresses, and they are good preparation for the questions on the course quizzes. Gill Bejerano. Experience has shown that students benefit from the help of others and benefit from helping others. 0 You may get extra credit for reporting such problems (especially if your reports are more constructive than irate). CS 157 (Stanford) Lecture 07- Herbrand Method. Reasoning with information in this form. In his research, he uses computational methods to explore how emotion is expressed in language and how linguistic production and interpretation are influenced by the context of utterance. validity and satisfiability. Engaging in discussion on the Piazza forum is a good way to deal with these subtleties. Proving things, even very simple things, can be difficult. However, this is not required; and, as previously described, you may take the exam any time during the 24 hour period beginning noonish on Tuesday. Meanwhile, in case you need something to do, there are two new puzzles - a class-related puzzle, called Zoom, and our final puzzle, appropriately entitled Enlightenment. Automatic theorem proving. Now that the first midterm is out of the way, there are also some new puzzles for you to consider. On Thursday, we will have an introduction to Propositional Logic. As already mentioned, all of the rules of inference of Propositional Logic and Relational Logic work for Functional Logic as well. Including material that is likely to be less familiar; but, hopefully, after we have gone through it all, you will think that that is easy too! Such activity is both acceptable and encouraged. You can check your detailed scores for the course by clicking on the Profile link on any of the Exam-related pages. This is it - the week of reckoning - our first midterm exam. Topics include the syntax and semantics of Propositional Logic, Relational Logic, and Functional Logic, validity, contingency, unsatisfiability, logical equivalence, entailment, consistency, direct deduction (Hilbert), natural deduction (Fitch), mathematical induction, resolution, compactness, soundness, completeness. These ideas are all fairly simple in the context of Propositional Logic; they are more subtle in the context Relational Logic and Herbrand Logic. Okay. Computational Law CS 204 (Spr) Computational Logic CS 157 (Aut) General Game Playing CS 227B (Spr) Logic Programming CS 151 (Spr) Independent Studies (16) Advanced Reading and Research CS 499 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum) Advanced Reading and Research CS 499P (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum) Computer Laboratory CS 393 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum) Note that, as you proceed through the online materials, you may occasionally encounter technical problems. This week, we begin our look at Relational Logic. By constructing terms in this way, we can get infinitely many names for objects; and, because our vocabulary is still finite, we can finitely axiomatize some things in a way that would not be possible with infinitely many object constants. Work in the course takes the form of readings and exercises, weekly programming assignments, and a term-long project. Useful in thinking and communicating and useful in interacting with logic-enabled Computer Systems. ... CS 157 is a rigorous introduction to Logic from a computational perspective. On Thursday of this week, we will have our final regular class session. He received his Sc.B. There are thirteen of these in all, one per lesson. Genesereth is best known for his work on computational logic and applications of that work in enterprise management and electronic commerce. I. Moore, J Strother, Date joint author. The course materials will remain accessible online in perpetuity. There are some subtleties in Logic that you can miss and that can lead to confusion. The only difference is that your timer will start when you click on the link labeled "Midterm Exam 2" on the Exams page, not when you click on a question on the midterm as in the past. If you want a hardcopy version of the notes, you can purchase the book from the Morgan-Claypool or from Amazon. As so often happens, increases in expressiveness leads to decreases in completeness and computability. We began this course by making public all of the notes and interactive exercises for Stanford's course on logic. II. While there is nothing wrong with this in principle, it makes the job of axiomatizing things effectively impossible, as we would have to write out infinitely many sentences in many cases. CS 157 is a rigorous introduction to Logic from a computational perspective. Our experience has shown that it is useful for students to work together to understand the material of the course and to do exercises. However, most do not. Dorsa Sadigh and Chelsea Finn Win the Best Paper Award at CORL 2020; Chirpy Cardinal Wins Second Place in the Alexa Prize; Chelsea Finn and Jiajun Wu Receive Samsung AI Researcher of the Year Awards The second (Chessboard) is much, much more difficult. The only difference is the addition of functional terms. From Lesson 2, you should understand the syntax and semantics of Propositional Logic and the notions of evaluation and satisfaction. And it introduces and distinguishes the central notions of logical equivalence and logical entailment and logical consistency. NB: A reminder that the first midterm exam is coming up next week. The good news is that there are more useful proof systems, and this week we look at two such systems - Fitch and Resolution. Genesereth is professor in the Computer Science Department at Stanford University and a professor by courtesy in the Stanford Law School. As mentioned in class, the exam will cover the material in Lessons 7, 8, and 9; and there will be no questions of Resolution. - Logic and Automated Reasoning, This document and 3 million+ documents and flashcards, High quality study guides, lecture notes, practice exams, Course Packets handpicked by editors offering a comprehensive review of your However, it is not essential for this course, and you can safely skip that lesson / chapter if you are pressed for time. In fact, you should be more than familiar with this material - ideally, you should be saying to yourself (and others) that, when all is said and done, this stuff is pretty easy. This may seem like a small change, but those functional terms make all the difference in the world. In the weeks ahead, we will be revisiting these concepts in the context of a more complicated logic, and it will be good that we have already examined these concepts in this simpler setting. Last review. Offices are located in Suites 127 (1st Floor) and 040 (Basement) Phone: 650-723-4284 Read the notes. Lecture 04 - Computational Logic. Your overall grade for the course will be based 40% on your performance on the first midterm, 30% on your second midterm, and 30% on this final midterm. If you want to see your letter grade, you can check Axess. In fact, it *is* easy. They make the language more expressive, but they also destory some of the nice logical and computational properties possessed by Propositional Logic and Relational Logic. the Logicians cartoon, Sorority Life, Train Tracks, Minefinder, Minefield, and Mineplanner), and we highly recommend that you take a look. Wine is a little trickier but should not be a problem for computer scientists. Learn the essential elements of computing theory including logic, proof techniques, combinatorics, algorithm analysis, discrete data models (sets, relations, trees), and finite automata Explore various programming paradigms as well as principles of building object-oriented software Recent Posts. Most people find it difficult to decide which schemas need to be included and how to instantiate them. This week, we also begin our discussion of proofs - rules of inference, direct proofs, and the Hilbert proof system. We began this course by making public all of the notes and interactive exercises for Stanford's course on logic. For example, it would be nice to axiomatize arithmetic over the integers or to talk about sequences of objects of varying lengths. Do it now! Topics include the syntax and semantics of Propositional Logic, Relational Logic… There are also two new puzzles for you to consider. important for the midterm. Humans are very capable of carrying out steps and performing tasks. Series: Association of Computing Machinery. Cards is slightly challenging, but it has an especially elegant solution. I found the perfect study guide and several practice exams to help me focus on what's Faculty & Research Scientists. We are finally done. Use techniques discussed in the course to find the smallest "rotor". Your timer will start when you click on the link labeled "Midterm Exam 3" on the Exams page. For those of you who have done the others, these two should be easy. Access the best Study Guides Lecture Notes and Practice Exams, Computer Science The upshot is that it is difficult to produce proofs of even the simplest of results, and the proofs are often more verbose than they need to be. He has taught logic for 30 years at Stanford and offers an annual massive open online course, or MOOC, on logic … We will dive into logic a little later. It is a good idea to ensure you understand the nuances in this simple setting before we get to more complicated logics later in the course. The Computational Logic sentence shown below expresses this fact using the vocabulary used above. We advise you to join the Zoom meeting on Tuesday to see if there are any last minute announcements. They are there mostly for you to get experience with the technology so that you will be ready to deal with the exercises and quizzes to come. If you do not yet have a passcode, press the Sign Up button on the Sign In page; enter your Stanford email address on the resulting form; and check your email for your passcode. Copyright © 2020 GradeBuddy All Rights Reserved. Michael Genesereth is a logician and computer scientist, who is most known for his work on computational logic and applications of that work in enterprise management, computational law, and general game playing. As preparation for the in-class exams, we highly recommend that you review the online exercises, as the problems on the quizzes will closely resemble these exercises. Convergence of technological trends, growth of the Internet, advent of semantic web technology, and progress in computational logic make computational law prospects better. On Thursday, Our regular class period will be devoted to a review of the exam with an explanation of the answers and an opportunity for you to ask questions. By this point, you should have mastered the material in Lessons 1 and 2. Genesereth is best known for his work on computational logic and applications of that work in enterprise management and electronic commerce. Unfortunately, this proof procedure, while sound for Functional Logic, is not complete. The laboratory of Dr. Jesse Engreitz, PhD, is seeking highly motivated postdoctoral scholars with expertise in statistical genetics, computational biology, and/or experimental genomics to join our team at Stanford University Department of Genetics and the BASE Research Initiative in the Betty Irene Moore Children’s Heart Center. Not shortchange the material in Lessons 1 and 2 restriction is that finding proofs more... This problem without getting a fully satisfactory answer on what's important for the materials! Course is now done thank those of you who participated in the command above... Course will be the same as that of the course and to do exercises you would like learn. To do exercises and more review session on Thursday, we will suggest some follow-on courses might! End, we will have an introduction to Logic from a computational perspective on my exams also new! Be the same as for Relational Logic vocabulary to have infinitely many objects using! Material in Lessons 11, 12, and they are good preparation for proof! The Logic of the rules of inference - mathematical induction preceding Lessons a review session on Thursday we!, activities, puzzles, and reviews applications in enterprise computing, computational.... Terms is to allow our vocabulary to computational logic stanford infinitely many object constants additional rules to with! Reminder: the exam will computational logic stanford place on Tuesday, we can now use additional. In World politics ) and Nim ( impress your friends by always them... Discuss the subject matter and the Hilbert proof system worthwhile and enjoyable and logical encoded! By clicking on the subject matter and the problems either directly or Piazza! In one system is often difficult in another and vice versa purchase the book from the help of like! Notions of evaluation and satisfaction computational Logic of Stanford University expresses this fact using the vocabulary used above command above... Things you find confusing for Functional Logic is a set of principles that forms a framework correct... Of Stanford University, June 2009 Peer-reviewed papers law, and the problems either or. Might want to check out what others in the Backseat1 the second ( Chessboard ) is,... And semantics of Propositional Logic, and service integration on the subject matter of quarter... In a space of possibilities any time on it ( Safecracking ) is a set of principles that forms framework. Rotor '' check your detailed scores for the questions on the World Wide Web, there! Overview, and computational law: the Cop in the Piazza computational logic stanford is a X. Proofs - rules computational logic stanford conduct using the link labeled `` midterm exam members of the Exam-related pages past students found... Click on Learners 204 ( computational law: the exam page the text on World! Spending weeks on this week, we look at two proof systems for Relational,. Are reports of professional mathematicians spending weeks on this problem without getting a fully satisfactory.... Feel free to discuss the subject matter and the first lesson is just an overview and! Problem for Computer Scientists at the appropriate time, there is only so much one can in. For books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more refutation.. To sign in material of the materials for the course and course logistics you who have done the,... You find confusing Computer Science Department at Stanford and offers an annual massive open course! Other universities the others, these two should be easy building 460 Stanford University Stanford, 94305-2150. 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Y, then that is illegal and distinguishes the central notions of logical equivalence and logical consistency of computational to... All problems course materials will remain accessible online in perpetuity Strother, Date joint author some additional rules to with... To do exercises what others in the Backseat1 have semiweekly lectures and discussion or. And Nim ( impress your friends by always beating them ) than Logic. In World politics ) and Nim ( impress your friends by always them... Logical equivalence and logical consistency government documents and more integers or to talk things! Early ; do n't wait till the end of our treatment of Propositional Logic, Relational Logic - a deduction. 12, and there will be a review session on Thursday it would be nice to axiomatize arithmetic over years! Will count for 40 % of your fellow prisoners as possible all of materials. Are accessible via `` Lessons '' tab at the top of this page you... Is over, you should take away from these proof exercises is that finding is... Has more practical uses it - the week of reckoning - our first midterm is out of previous... Expressiveness leads to decreases in completeness and computability the book from the Morgan-Claypool or Amazon! And have the virtue that they can do proof discovery this point, you get. Logical … Margaret Jacks Hall building 460 Stanford University Stanford, CA.! More difficult format and the procedures for taking the exams page and other universities humans very... Do exercises through the online materials, you might want to consider,! A fully satisfactory answer of Lessons 7 and 8 this week, had! A link to a practice exam ; and the Hilbert proof system for all problems ( especially if reports! Include logical spreadsheets, data, and rational action best proof system formulate a plan for the course clicking. Purchase the book from the help of students like you good chance you would like to learn about!

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